Comparison of leadership theories

Keywords: compare leadership theories, leadership theories comparison

The establishment of romantic relationship between supporters and leaders that focus on real changes and outcomes that displays through shared purposes is basically leadership. Leadership as well involves in creating switch not only in maintaining status estimate. Another leadership important characteristic is to bring persons and make sure they are understanding to come together around a common eyesight and bring change about desired future. In many aspects, the value of leadership is essential without it family members, communities and as well as organisations would decrease apart. In other perception, the way of enhancing efficiency, morale, customer service and performance is the critical aspect of leadership. Additionally it is needed for the organisations to take care of critical scenario and lead that successfully and only a good leader with very good leadership ability may lead team successfully. There will vary styles of leadership basically it is way the person handles that as a way to stay alive in his / her position. These are authoritarian, democratic and laissez-faire.( Business:William M. Satisfaction, Robert J. Hughes, Jack R. Kapoor,Cengage Learning, 2009 – Political Technology -p.179)

In authoritarian leadership design, leader holds all the power and tasks. In this style, workers are assigned to certain task by the leader and expect to get it done orderly.

In laissez-faire leadership style, leader gives capacity to employees. There are two or more option decisions taken by head, employees can choose some of them from there this will depend up to them.

In democratic leadership styles, leader gives more importance on staff members and tries to inspire them and shows focus on individuals.

Historical, classical and modern day approach to Leadership theory: Historically there are lots of leadership approaches that linked with several theories of leadership.

"Great Guy" theory of leadership:

1900’s: This can be a earliest theories of leadership. At that time most of the researchers believed that ‘leaders will be born, certainly not made’. In Great Guy theory, describes that the key secrets of a great leader lies in being born great. It gives importance on the analysis of all the wonderful leaders who were great, may be they will be from aristocracy or from the lower classes nevertheless they had the options to lead. By learning those people who did great items such as for example Nepolean, Hitler, Curchill if we go further in the past Lord Krisna, Gesus and Hazrat Mohammad were very easy to point out them. Relating to ‘Great Man’ theory, it believes that leaders will need to have some qualities like great commanding power, cleverness, great character, courage, self-possession; fierceness and expressiveness that can’t be possessed through learning or through particular educated programmes.(Organisational behaviour-by Hawa Singh,1st ed,2009-10,page-263)( Fire Support Leadership: Theories and Practices-Mitchell R. Waite, International Association of Fire Chiefs;Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2008 – Business & Economics;page-3,4)

Trait Theories of Leadership:

1900’s-1940: Trait theories are similar to "Great Man" theories in some ways. It assumes that leaders must have got general characteristics or personal features that they get by born and common to all or any and build them better matched to leadership. In Trait Theory of leadership merely tried to find traits of well-known leader that were frequent. This approach was based on the scheme that is individuality and personal intrinsic value that distinguish successful head form everybody else. In 1994, Yukl carried out research on traits and skills and associated with organisational effectiveness (Introduction to educational leadership & organizational behavior: theory into practice,Patti L. Opportunity, Edward W. Chance,Eyesight on Education, 2002,web page.87). These were-

  • Energy and pressure patience
  • Self-possession
  • Inner locus of control
  • Emotional maturity
  • Worthiness
  • Supremacy inspiration
  • Reaching orientation
  • Need for affiliation

Situational Theories of Leadership:

(Leadership in Institutions: There Is a Difference between Leaders and Managers, David, University Press of America, 2009, p 33)

In situational theories of leadership offers more importance on the various situations like where in fact the activity to be accomplished, fit surrounded by personalities, vitality and perceptions. Effectiveness of leadership relies on those conditions. These situational theories will be also called Contingency theories because this Theory is definitely reliant upon the requirements or the position of the situations.

1960’s-70: In Contingency/situational theory argues-what leaders perform which can be determined by that scenarios and that behaviors should be related with that environmental situations at hand (Understanding Leadership Perspectives: Theoretical and Practical Approaches, By Matthew R. Fairholm, Gilbert W. Fairholm,2008,page.11).

A good situational leader can only apply different leadership models with the changing scenarios. The very best action taken by the leader depends on of the first choice depends on a range of situational factors. How the model works only to achieve results:

  • Identification of detailed work and task
  • Asses present performance
  • Corresponding leader response

Different leadership types could affect by the broad range of variables based on the different environmental conditions and it creates a direct effect on leader behaviour, in which leader can function. There are several crucial contingencies like organisational volume level how to write a science fair research paper, complexity in task, maturity of worker and so many others. According to situational theory, situational elements are limited and range according to that contingency and specified behaviour of head can only just work in certain kind of scenarios not for all.

There are three virtually all prominent theories of contingency-

  • Path-Goal theory
  • Feidler’s Contingency theory
  • The Vroom-Yetton’s model

Path-Goal theory:

In this theory predominantly focus on leader’s motivational function and it can be enhanced by increasing specific payoffs to subordinates for work goal accomplishment, gain personal fulfillment by escalating opportunities (Residence, 1971).According to these theories essential occupier is normally that the effectiveness could be measured through the behaviours of several leaders that’ll be influenced by situational variables. In broader feeling it focused on initial arrangement and reflection behaviour of leader’s but later it prolonged in the type of participative and leadership behaviours when it comes to achievement oriented (Residence and Mitchell, 1974).there are two main assumption on path-Goal theories of leadership-

(Leadership edited by Linda L. Neider, Chester Schriesheim, IAP, 2002, site-116)

Firstly, it concerns with the suitability of leader’s behaviour to the subordinates

Secondly, it worries with the motivational elements of leader (Property and Mitchell, 1974).

Suitability: Leader behaviours should be ideal for the subordinates to ensure that it helps them to function well with different circumstance. This great behaviour of leader enhances the entire satisfactions of subordinates.

Motivation: The function of a innovator is crucial in motivating of personnel for particular task to boost the overall performance.

Fiedler’s Contingency theory:

Managing organizational behaviour: Henry, Neal P. Mero, John R. Rizzo Wiley-Blackwell, 2000 – pages.461, 467

In 1971, Feidler proposed clarification on that how group functionality can be influenced through the relations of leadership orientation, group setting and job qualities. Leader’s circumstances can measure though many extents like associations between leaders and customers, structure of job and position power (Fiedler, 1978).

The relationship between head and member: This identifies how the leader is well-liked by the group users. When good relationship is present between leaders and people then all are get high pleasure in do the job and organisations values is achieved through specific ideals. If the relation is going badly afterward there is lack of common trust. Another significant term group cohesiveness, it is very difficult to make all of the employees interact when it low. If it is high but bad relation with leader then group works along to harm the organisation and leader.

Structure of jobs: It is categorised in two techniques like high process and low task structure. In high task task structure leader should know very well what the goal is and how to make that happen. In low task composition job leader must make a decision how to perform task every time to get it done.

Position power: In great position power head has authority to have any essential decisions without informing one to higher organisation amounts. In low position power, leader has limited authority.

The Vroom-Yetton’s model of leadership:

This model is trusted in the development of leadership in corporate centre and in addition gets enough support from practitioners. (Industrial and organizational psychology: linking theory with repetition;Â By Cary L. Cooper, Edwin A. Locke, web page-151,152)The most crucial aspects of this model is that legitimates both the autocratic and democratic head behaviour and matching that is suitable in meticulous circumstances. This model also provides fruitful information about what will be the perfect time of using groupings or opposed to personality decision making. This version has some restrictions like leaders are will have to take decision in choosing of leadership styles, it considers each decision in term of circumstance but it does not depend on previous factor.

Cognitive resource theory:

Cognitive Resource theory is the modification of Feidler’s Contingency theory. This theory focused on persona, manners and situational houses. Cognitive learning resource theory integrates cognitive solutions like personal acumen, sensible knowledge and skill, work capability, into original unit.


1) Plans and strategies will be communicated through directive behaviour by mangers.

2) Experienced and smarter leaders have significantly more priority on decision making rather than less experienced and less smart leader.

The main limitation of the theory that it’s not well thought-out the power of leader.

The Hersey Blanchard Theory:

This situational theory produced by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard and it focuses on activity and operational environment of the organisation. Their main approach was that fans will often get favour from the leader about their willingness to do the job. In this approach leaders need to understand about the followers properly and have to recognize their stage of production and according to that apply the leadership design. With taking help from Ohio State studies and develop four leadership models that’s available for managers-

(Leadership in Institutions: There Is a Difference between Leaders and Managers by David My spouse and i. Bertocci;University Press of America, 2009 ,pages.39,40)

  • Directing or telling
  • Coaching or selling
  • Participating or supporting
  • Delegating

Directing or telling: Job responsibilities

is defined by the leader and inform to followers about when to do that and where to do it and how can it be achieved.

Coaching: It’s a two method communication here innovator gives supportive way to followers and quite often require ideas or recommendation from followers as well.

Supporting or participating: The first choice and follower talk about in decision accordingly to achieve a maximum ideals like exactly what will be the best to contend with high worth job

Delegating: Followers get little support from the leaders.

Implications of the theory: one difficulty is that it does not matter how hard leaders try however they are against to change from one style to some other.

Behavioural Theories of Leadership:

In this theory largely concentrate on behaviour of leaders in the direction of the followers and this became a leading setting of leadership approaching within the organisation. Diverse habits of manners had been grouped jointly and categorized as designs. These activities of operations through training became very famous. In essence these styles are-

Task concern-Here leaders give important on goals accomplishment through high level productivity, and ways to manage people and activities for obtaining those objectives.

People concern-Here leaders focus on their followers as persons – what their needs, pursuits, what their problems, how it might be development and so on. They aren’t simply units of creation or methods to an end.

Directive leadership. This style is considered by leaders make decisions for others – and desiring all of the followers or subordinates will pursue that directions.

Participative leadership. Right here leaders be a part of decision-making by sharing amongst others.(Wright 1996: 36-7), 6.00pm, 27th Aug ’10 Wright, P. (1996) Managerial Leadership, London:

Charismatic Leadership:

This theory is described by Max Weber and mainly targets leader’s charismatic characteristics. Through these attributes leaders influence the fans plus they can change anything. It is not possible to access these qualities by ordinary people generally they are extraordinary. They are like magic leaders they got special capacity to handle complex situations.

Transactional Theories:

(Intro to educational leadership & organizational patterns: theory into practice,Patti L. Chance, Chance, 2002,page.94)

Ok -Leadership in Agencies: There exists a Difference Between Leaders and Managers, David My spouse and i. Bertocci, University Press of America, 2009, page-48,49

This way of leadership was most popular at that time and this is described by Gibson, Ivancevich and Donnelly. It provides some very similar features with situational theories. It’s a sort of leadership where leaders find out what the need of followers to attain organisational performance as a way of benefits. In this theory features several assumptions like it motivates people through incentive and get punishment for the reason for mistakes, followers really know what they have to do according to route for the purpose of getting rewards. Oftentimes they use management by exception approaches. The transactional leader occasionally use Path-Goal theory as a framework but leader take all of the duties for setting goals, mission for gaining effectiveness.

Transformational Theories:

Followers happen to be motivated and motivated by the transformation leaders and also to achieve results more than desired. This is actually the most recent theories of leadership. This leadership capacity based on different personality factors like charisma, person focus and rational recreation (web page-49). Intro to educational leadership & organizational habit: theory into practice-Â By Patti L. Probability, Edward W. Chance, 2002, page-90, 95

There are several effects of transformational leadership identified by Bernard Bass and Bruce Avolio (1994) .These are as follows:-

  • Motivating others to involve them in work from new perception
  • Consciousness about what the objective of the organisation
  • Developing ability of other’s to achieve performance at exceeds level
  • Involved in determining the benefits associated with the organisations by motivating the beyond their attention because they could have.

Theory X and Theory Y of Leadership:

In 1960, Douglus and McGregor defined this leadership theory that the actions of leaders are based on their thinking and factors about the individuals at the job. He also described the behaviour of leaders in two contrasting sets of bliefs.These are theory X and Theory Y.

The assumptions of Theory X:

Average individual do not like work and prevent if they can

Individual have to keep pushing for achieving desired targets by directing, controlling and threatening through offering punishment

This approach can take actions

The assumptions of Theory Y:

  • People will work in their own responsibilities and control relating to how they will be committed.
  • In common people have some features like creativeness and imaginativeness
  • The average folks are not merely accepted but search for objectives.

Leadership models presently using in various organisations:

Now a day, most of the organisations are focusing on leader’s behaviours, expertise and attitudes that they must have and it is possible to develop those qualities. There are lots of leadership theories that have gained recognition in several organisational perspective. These are as follows-

  • Situational leadership
  • Transformational leadership
  • Behavioural leadership

(The leadership pocketbook, Fiona Elsa Dent – 2003, page.09)

Qualities of folks in leadership positions:

There are three levels of leadership positions in an organisation. They are strategic level, operational level and team level. An excellent leader should possess the right qualities to handle this position properly and tactfully. These are as follows:-

  1. Good character
  2. Good personality
  3. Devotion

Self confidence- this will help them to identify subordinate’s talent basically that can help the business to go up

Good communication capability- it is crucial for any business to perform effectively without this it really is impossible

Good learner – it will help them to develop

Risk taking ability

Problem solving capability

Relationships-this qualities have to maintain positive relationship in every areas

Creative minded-this qualities help them to bring any transformation when there is definitely esteem needs so that you can sustain in the business for achieving advanced of success

Positive attitudes

Servant leadership-decision making capability through considering the opinion attractiveness with business vision by stimulating the followers

  • Bravery
  • Innovative
  • Good motivation power

Leadership approaches for 21st century:,7:53pm,26th Aug ’10,9.00pm,26th,july’2010

Main points considering distinct leading organisations in US for the 21st century:

Internationalization and Modification in information Technology though modification in organisational diversity.

Today’s most dominant leadership model is definitely situational, transformational leadership model but these theories overlooked behavioural approach. Almost all of the organisations now focusing on key diversity initiatives and it could tackle through behavioural approach of leadership. These diversity initiatives can only just be implemented through behavioural approach in today’s or tomorrow’s in the organisations.

The main leadership difficulties for 21st century’s are forces in marketplace, issues of folks and competencies of leadership.

Forces in market:

The organizational modification at a macroeconomic level is principally is determined by market forces and as a result these forces will demand further retain in eye from agencies and leaders. For these purposes, so these marketplace forces create a direct effect on behaviours and wishes of those available in the market either with regards to demanding or supplying a good or services. These forces contain increase in globalization and also the formation of progressively even more huge multinational corporations through mergers and takeovers.

In in comparison to larger organizations, most sectors grow economies of scale by distributing overhead bills through production of even more devices. Through globalization organisations is now offering product or service in various countries and cultures, the marketplace size is increasing and they are serving lot. The overall cost of achieving these global is lowered on the reason for technological advancement.

Issues of individuals:

People issues involve conversation with the staff of a business. With the beginning of the 21st century, these people are involving in regular full-time. Folks are now more interested on part-time careers. Each year more and more people will be self-employed, momentary or part-period. In United States’ dependent employees the full total number of regular worker is reducing working day by In future, staff could have different hope and requirements on their organizations. Largely, the organisation will need to focus considerably more on the employee-employer marriage than it does in the 20th hundred years. With their elevated complexity and globalization, companies are demanding expertise and talents from their leaders that are only starting to be understood, under no circumstances mind mastered. One of the most important of these will be the capability to balance employee wants and client requirements globally and efficiently in upcoming years. Talent human capital would be the prime resources of success.

Competencies of leadership:

In 21st hundred years world is going to be more competitive, more complex situations. Leaders must have to focus on eyesight and goals of the organisation. They have to tackle circumstances on day-to-day basis, need to identify stakeholders for the purpose of developing people, have to devote operating.

Another explanation of competencies will consist of: development and communication ability for maintaining it in a dynamic marketplace and stimulating others to buy involved with it; helps in decision making by guiding workers at all levels; committing to a customs while aligning specific and corporate goals, attaining understanding of development.

Another new leadership way for 21st century is Cross Enterprise Leadership.

Cross Enterprise Leadership:

Cross-Enterprise Leadership — that may generate, take and distribute worth not only in company but all over the network of companies. Secondly, this enterprise-leadership likewise meets the issues of complex and powerful enterprises. Thirdly, it isn’t possible to control enterprise by one head, so consequently it requires to become distributed. Finally, this process requires improvements to leadership and that must be possessed by conventional business leader.,26th aug’10 )

The current all of the theories mainly give attention to physical, mental interactions of human being in the organisations but spirituals contains.

Spiritual leadership:

This leadership supplies wish and belief how to write a reaction paper in the organization’s vision that will generally support follower’s to anticipate future. In other ways it can be described through the attitudes and behaviour of leader’s that generates perception membership. Â Â Â Â Â Â

In operational field, spiritual leadership handles the ideals, attitudes, and behaviours of leaders that are essential to inherently motivate one’s personal and others.,8.0 pm,27th aug’10